Author: Leena Bhattacharya, S Chandrasekhar
Title: India’s Search for Link Language and Progress towards Bilingualism
Abstract: The three language formula (3LF) is viewed as an instrument for achieving the objective of a multilingual India. Possibly on account of lack of agreement on 3LF and politics of medium of instruction, the pace of transition towards bilingualism is glacial. This paper is a quantitative assessment of this transition. We analyse data from Census of India Language Tables for the years 1971, 2001 and 2011 and two recent NSSO surveys on education. We present estimates of probability of two individuals drawn at random being able to converse in a common language and the extent to which today’s school going children and the youth are likely to be bilingual respectively.
Keywords: Bilingual, Trilingual, Link Language, India, Three Language Formula
JEL Code: Z1, Z13