AUTHOR: K.V. Ramaswamy
TITLE: Size Dependent Tax incentives, Threshold Effects and Horizontal Subcontracting in Indian Manufacturing: Evidence from Factory and Firm-level Panel Data Sets
India’s industrial protection and promotion policies for small-scale enterprises have figured prominently in the literature on industrialization policies in developing countries. These size dependent tax incentives could encourage fragmentation of production and prevent natural up-scaling of firm sizes. The author presents a new empirical application of the idea of threshold burden of tax incentives in India. The study is based on a large unbalanced panel of manufacturing factories in the formal sector spanning the period 1999-2008 and a panel of manufacturing companies covering the period 1990-2010. Average subcontracting intensity was found to be significantly higher in manufacturing factories and firms with sales turnover below the ceiling level set by the tax rules. Econometric tests based on Fixed Effect models supported the hypothesis that firms take advantage of tax incentives by staying below the threshold sales turnover. This is consistent with the idea of threshold effects of size dependent tax incentives.
Keywords : Firm Size, Threshold Effects, Regulations, manufacturing and small-scale enterprises
JEL Code: O14, O17, L60, H32 and H25